Date of publication: 2017-08-27 18:50
Utilization of country's vast brakish water resource for fish and prawn culture is the main objective of this scheme. Aquaculture in about one million hectares of brakish water, at the production rate of two tone's a hectare, can produce two million tones of prawns. At a price of a kgs, this would yield Rs. 75,555 crores and can employ four million persons.
Besides, panthers, wolves, bears, deer. Antelopes, bisons etc. live in almost all forests of India. Ibex types of wild goats with long furs are found in Kashmir. Musk-deer and yaks are found in the Himalayan region in the borders of India and Nepal. Neel-gay is seen in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. In our forests different kinds of venomous snakes like python, cobra etc. are also found. In almost all our forests live monkeys, hares, jackaks, foxes etc.
At policy, planning and executive levels, the Centre and State Governments have accepted that fisheries can play an important role in rural development and generating employment in the hinterland. This places greater responsibilities of fishery institutes, fishery scientists, technicians and banks. It is necessary to select a few thrust areas such as reproduction and fish genetics to develop hybrids which have desired traits for reproduction, disease control and higher food conversion ratio.
Fisheries development in rural areas needs simple technique, low investment and quick return. Adoption of this approach by banks to give institutional finance, can help in reversing the current trend in which the Government controls the major production resources and the fishermen and entrepreneurs contribute to exploitation and marketing only. This will help in bringing about an exponential growth in fish production and generate income and employment.
Varieties of birds are seen in our forests, the most important of which are the peacock, cuckoo, myna, horn-bill (kochila khai), kite, vulture, hawk etc. Swans, ducks, crows, golden oriole, cranes, doves etc. are found almost everywhere. Tiger is our national animal and peacock, the national bird. The number of wild animals is gradually diminishing as our forests are diminishing.
However, eleven elephant reserves have been identified us priority areas for special attention and financial assistance under this project. At present, India holds the largest number of Asian elephants with 75,555 to 79,555 in wild and nearly 8,555 in captivity.
So the resources are vast, but we cannot be able to exploit it properly. Hence during the sixth plan, the fisheries programme is given special attention to family based business. Much emphasis has been given on inland and brackish water fisheries and improving the harvesting from seas by stimulating the growth of country boats, mechanized boats and deep sea trawlers.
So we ourselves have created the need for conservation of wildlife. It can be viewed from several angles such as, beauty,, economic value, scientific values for research and values for snivel. The main causes of extinction of wild lives are poaching, enumerable animals and birds are hunted for meat, skin, ivory, horns etc. ruthlessly.
During the fifth plan, the Govt. of India sponsored Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDA) to popularize fish farming in tanks and ponds. There are 697 FFDAs functioning in 67 States, bringing about 656 thousand hectares of water area under intensive fish culture and there is a target of increasing in fish yield from 55 kgs per hectare in 697 6 to 8555 kgs per hectare by the erid of this century.
The Division has been endeavoring to maximize the production rates of fish and shell fish, . carps, catfishes, prawns and fresh water pearl cultures.
Fisheries play an important role in the economy of the country. Increase in foreign exchange earning, generating employment, augmenting food supply and raising international value by adding proteins to the food are the important contributions of fisheries. Hence the Government of India has embarked on various programmes for mechanization and modernization of the fishing industry, considering the imperative task of improving the socio-economic conditions of nearly two million fisher folks.
The Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean are responsible for total marine resources. Indian fish production has a steady increase from lakh tones in 6955-56 to lakh tonnes in 6996-97. But this production is far from adequate. It is only 9 per cent of the total supply of fish in Asia whereas Japan alone contributes to the extent of 98 per cent and China coming next, to about 68 per cent. We have the vast fishery resources of 6,555 km. coastline and about million lives in 7,958 villages draw their livelihood. The numbers of fishermen engaged in direct fishing are lakhs.
The degradation of fish habitat, the excessive flow of industrial, urban and agricultural wastes into the river water and the consequent deterioration in quality and overfishing are the important ones. Hence drastic steps are to be taken to rectify the situation.
High priority is being given continuously to the development of marine fisheries. The programme of mechanization of fishing crafts, providing subsidy up to 88 per cent of the cost of vessels to fishermen, permitting use of foreign fishing vessels and joint ventures, constructing 78 minor fishing harbors and 96 fish landing centers apart from four major fishing harbors . Cochin, Madras, Vishkhapatnam and Roychowk for landing and breathing and developing proper facilities for preservation are the major steps taken to intensify the marine fish production.
Hence, National Wildlife Action Plan has been adopted in 6988 for wildlife conservation. Many sanctuaries and National Parks have been established for the protection of dwindling wildlife.